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Hamburg, nonetheless, is a cosmopolitan city in its outlook. Although comparatively few foreigners live there, many pass through it. The city has dealings with a large number of nations, and it has more consulates than any other city in the world, except New York City.
These are among the attractions that have contributed to a growing tourist industry. Although it was badly damaged during World War II, Hamburg has succeeded in maintaining a sense of old-world grace alongside its thriving commercial life.
Hamburg stands at the northern extremity of the lower Elbe valley , which at that point is between 5 and 8 miles 8 and 13 km wide.
Two other rivers flow into the Elbe at Hamburg—the Alster from the north and the Bille from the east. The nucleus of the city is the Altstadt Old Town , the former medieval settlement, bounded by the harbour and by a string of roads that follow the line of the old fortifications.
Fire has destroyed almost all the older residences and warehouses, and what was left untouched by conflagration has often been rebuilt for contemporary purposes.
There are, however, a few scattered survivals of older buildings. Moreover, the layout of the old city centre can still be detected in some of the ancient street names and in the Fleete canals , which connect the Alster with the docks on the Elbe.
Around the latter are elegant suburbs such as Rotherbaum, Harvesterhude, and Uhlenhorst. Many waterways, navigable by pleasure boats, run into the Aussenalster.
The last intact ensemble of traditional Hamburg architecture is to be found in the Deichstrasse, one side of which backs onto the Nikolai canal. Its tall, narrow houses, resembling those of Amsterdam , were originally built from the 17th through the 19th century.
It was in one of them, number 42, now a restaurant, that the devastating fire of broke out. Afterward the houses were rebuilt in the old style.
Today the street is a protected area, and in recent years it has undergone extensive restoration. Many traditional restaurants are found there.
Another survival of older architecture is in the Krameramtswohnungen, near Sankt Michaelis. Consisting of two half-timbered brick buildings on either side of a narrow courtyard, it was built as a series of dwellings for the widows of shopkeepers and is the only surviving 17th-century construction of its kind in the city.
It was destroyed by fire in , rebuilt, devastated again during World War II , and restored yet again after the war. The prosperous years — brought an abundance of fine architecture, examples of which can be seen in the spacious and elegant patrician houses around the Aussenalster.
Many of these are now occupied by consulates. More recently Hamburg has acquired its quota of starkly functional modern buildings, such as the Congress Centrum Congress Centre; opened and the Fernsehturm Television Tower , Thus the townscape of Hamburg as a whole has a human quality lacking in many German cities.
Hamburg has mild winters, late springs, relatively cool summers, high humidity, and frequent fog. The mean winter temperature is In the city had about 1,, inhabitants, but since then the population has been slowly decreasing.
More than three-fourths of the residents are Protestants, and the remainder are predominantly Roman Catholic. The Jews, of whom there had been 27, in when Hitler took power , now number only about 1, All processing and manufacturing industries are represented there.
The chemical, steel, and shipbuilding industries are also important, although shipbuilding has declined as a result of competition from Japan and Korea.
Hamburg is also the most important centre in Germany, after Berlin, for newspaper and periodical publishing. Chief among imports are vegetable oils and fats, tea, coffee, petroleum, tropical fruit, and uncured tobacco.
Exports include machinery, electrotechnical products, processed petroleum fuel and lubricants, copper, and pharmaceutical products.
The greatest economic centre of Germany, Hamburg since has become the site of first-class trade fairs. Many of the fairs and conventions are held at the Ernst-Merck-Halle exhibition grounds, located south of the Planten un Blomen park.
An especially popular event is the international boat show, held each winter. Harbour and city are well served by the German railway network, and the city has a good system of buses and underground trains.
To relieve the central city from long-distance traffic, a tunnel was built opened in under the Elbe as a part of the Stockholm-Lisbon highway.
It has two runways from which even the largest jet-propelled aircraft can still take off. Each senator is responsible for a particular department, but administrative problems of a local nature are delegated to the district offices and to the local authorities.
The state flag likewise shows a white castle on a red field. Hamburg also has state schools for music and interpretative art and for the sculptural arts, as well as some research centres covering such areas as hydrography, oceanography, tropical medicine , shipbuilding, economics, meteorology, and particle acceleration.
It is particularly notable for its collection of 19th- and 20th-century works, including many of the German Romantic school. The Helms-Museum, in the Harburg district, is a local museum for the part of Hamburg south of the Elbe but also houses antiquities representing the prehistory and early history of the whole territory.
Reemtsma, to make his private collection accessible to the public. The Hamburg Staatsoper , which dates from , has won world renown.
Its performances of classical and contemporary works bear comparison with those given by the great opera houses of Vienna , Milan , London , and New York City.
The Thalia-Theater, founded in , with a multifaceted program that includes plenty of light entertainment, is popular with local audiences. All three establishments are generously funded by the state.
The numerous other theatres include the tiny Piccolo-Theater and the Hansa-Theater, said to be the last genuine variety theatre in the German-speaking world.
The birthplace of Mendelssohn and Brahms, Hamburg has a sustained tradition of musical activity. Three great orchestras—the Philharmonische Staatsorchester, the Symphonie-Orchester des Norddeutschen Rundfunks, and the Hamburger Symfoniker—familiarize the public with classical and contemporary compositions.
There are also groups specializing in chamber music , in choral performances, and in church music; and orchestras, choirs, singers, and instrumentalists from other parts of Germany or from abroad are also invited to Hamburg.
By Hamburg had more newspapers than any other city in Germany. In the s Berlin began its ascendancy as a press centre, and Hamburg fell into second place, which it still occupies.
In addition, a wide range of weekly and monthly magazines issue from the various publishing firms located in the city. Sports have long been popular in Hamburg.
This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" Neustadt whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced.
Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in , the Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges mediatised , but became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.
Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in Hamburg re-assumed its pre status as a city-state in In , about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the " Great Fire ".
The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20, homeless.
Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly in , Hamburg adopted in a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males.
Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association.
Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation — and of the German Empire — , and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic — Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein in , the last along with Bremen of the German states to join.
Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of cholera in was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city.
About 8, died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world.
In Nazi Germany — , Hamburg was a Gau from until During the Second World War , Hamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour.
On 23 July , Royal Air Force RAF firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof main railway station and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as Hammerbrook , Billbrook and Hamm South.
Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAF , killed at least 42, civilians; the precise number is not known.
About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts.
Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps.
Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. On 10 June the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree.
From to , the Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city.
On 16 February , a North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than people. On 31 December , there were 1,, people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of There were , women and , men in Hamburg.
For every 1, females, there were 1, males. In , there were 19, births in Hamburg of which In the city, the population was spread out with In , there were 1,, households, of which The average household size was 1.
Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December is as follows . Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates.
Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch Hanseatic German , although the term is used in appreciation.
However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster , written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently.
Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.
Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of a religion. In late , According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" Muslim life in Germany estimated , Muslim migrants counting in nearly 50 countries of origin lived in Hamburg in There are several mosques , including the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosque , which is the oldest in the city,  the Islamic Centre Hamburg , and a Jewish community.
As a German state government , it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.
Since , the seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus Hamburg City Hall , with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament.
Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs German: Bezirke and subdivided into quarters German: There are localities German: The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws.
The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act of , when the cities Altona , Harburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg.
Each borough is governed by a Borough Council German: Bezirksversammlung and administered by a Municipal Administrator German: The boroughs are not independent municipalities: Pauli , Steinwerder , Veddel , Waltershof and Wilhelmsburg.
Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From to , Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy.
Altona was an independent city until Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes.
Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg.
The many streams, rivers and canals are crossed by some 2, bridges , more than London , Amsterdam and Venice put together. The town hall is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in The plan includes designs by Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano.
The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. The park and its buildings were designed by Fritz Schumacher in the s.
The lavish and spacious Planten un Blomen park Low German dialect for "plants and flowers" located in the centre of Hamburg is the green heart of the city.
Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg , which is a historic botanical garden that now consists primarily of greenhouses.
Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up.
Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the Planten un Blomen park from May to early October. Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and music venues and clubs.
In , more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events.
More than 8, taxable companies average size 3. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London.
The English Theatre of Hamburg  near U3 Mundsburg station was established in and is the oldest professional English-speaking theatre in Germany, and has exclusively English native-speaking actors in its company.
Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals. Hamburg State Opera is a leading opera company.
Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. The main concert venue is the new concert hall Elbphilharmonie. Before it was the Laeiszhalle , Musikhalle Hamburg.
The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the Hamburger Symphoniker. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company Stage Entertainment being based in the city.
Hamburg has nurtured a number of pop musicians. Identical twins Bill Kaulitz and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band Tokio Hotel live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, Zimmer and Humanoid.
Singer Nena also lives in Hamburg. There is a substantial alternative and punk scene, which gathers around the Rote Flora , a squatted former theatre located in the Sternschanze.
Hamburg is famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule "Hamburg School" , a term used for bands like Tocotronic , Blumfeld , Tomte or Kante.
The city was a major centre for heavy metal music in the s. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of power metal.
Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as Spirit Zone. Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events.
Some of them are street festivals, such as the gay pride Hamburg Pride festival  or the Alster fair German: Lange Nacht der Museen offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight.
Film Tage — presents a wide range of films. Since , Hamburg has the Dockville music and art festival. It takes place every year in summer in Wilhelmsburg.
Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel.
Ordinary bread rolls tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark , especially of Copenhagen , have a lot in common.
This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish.
The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the HafenCity.
Pauli Piers and cruise ship. Hamburg Rathaus City Hall. Reeperbahn , nightlife district of St. Hamburg Hauptbahnhof , busiest railway station in Germany.
Hamburg has long been a centre of alternative music and counter-culture movements. The boroughs of St.
Pauli , Sternschanze and Altona are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations.
The Rote Flora is a former theatre, which was squatted in in the wake of redevelopment plans for that area. Since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany and Europe.
Especially during the 33rd G8 summit in nearby Heiligendamm , the Rote Flora served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then.
During the G20 summit , which took place in Hamburg from 7—8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the Sternschanze area and particularly around the Rote Flora.
On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area.
In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests.
After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression.
In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood.
Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs. Dorothy wrote a detailed journal of their stay, labelled "The Hamburg Journal by noted Wordsworth scholar Edward de Selincourt.
A Hamburg saying, referring to its anglophile nature, is: A memorial for successful English engineer William Lindley , who reorganized, beginning in , the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street.
In , more than 2, "stumbling blocks" Stolpersteine were laid, engraved with the names of deported and murdered citizens. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution.
The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over , businesses. The unemployment rate stood at 6.
Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important banking city of Northern Germany.
The Hamburg Stock Exchange is the oldest of its kind in Germany. The most significant economic unit is the Port of Hamburg , which ranks third to Rotterdam and Antwerpen in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8.
Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse , is an important location of the civil aerospace industry. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island Grasbrook , and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm.
The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2. HafenCity has hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook.
Residential units for up to 12, people are planned to be built on the site by around the mids, and jobs for up to 40, people, mainly in the office sector, should be created.
It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH , half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages.
Many companies operating in E-Commerce have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents, many start-up companies that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity.
Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From to , the overnight stays in the city increased by A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St.
Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. Major destinations also include museums. The area of Reeperbahn in the quarter St. The singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St.
The Beatles had stints on the Reeperbahn early in their careers. In , the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg.
Most foreigners are European, especially from Denmark , overnight stays , the United Kingdom , overnight stays , Switzerland , overnight stays , Austria about , overnight stays and the Netherlands about , overnight stays.
The Queen Mary 2 has docked regularly since , and there were six departures planned from onwards. Media businesses employ over 70, people. There are regional radio stations such as Radio Hamburg.
Many national newspapers and magazines such as Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as Financial Times Deutschland.
Hamburger Abendblatt and Hamburger Morgenpost are daily regional newspapers with a large circulation. There are music publishers, such as Warner Bros.
The Reeperbahn has been the location for many scenes, including the Beatles film Backbeat. Hamburg was also shown in An American Tail where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats.
Hamburg has 54 hospitals. The University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf , with about 1, beds, houses a large medical school.
There are also smaller private hospitals. On 1 January there were about 12, hospital beds. Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four Autobahnen motorways and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia.
Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the old Elbe Tunnel Alter Elbtunnel or St.
Pauli Elbtunnel official name which opened in , now is major tourist sight, and the Elbe Tunnel Elbtunnel the crossing of a motorway. Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation.
Hanseatic City of Hamburg between and and from onwards, rather than the single letter normally used for large cities since the federal registration reform in , such as B for Berlin or M for Munich.
The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn elevated railway , also because the operating company of the subway is the Hamburger Hochbahn.