Fruits

fruits

Fruits | Cedric Grolet | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Oct 9, We tasted a lot of different fruits during our vacation in Colombia in Tsd. Abonnenten, 9 folgen, Beiträge - Sieh dir Instagram-Fotos und - Videos von true fruits (@truefruitssmoothies) an.

The ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination , which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers.

After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte.

Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote , and the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process.

As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp , may become fleshy as in berries or drupes , or form a hard outer covering as in nuts.

In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules. In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary , other parts of the flower such as the floral tube, including the petals , sepals , and stamens , fuse with the ovary and ripen with it.

When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.

Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, and composite or multiple fruits. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil.

Dry fruits may be either dehiscent they open to discharge seeds , or indehiscent they do not open to discharge seeds. Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp fruit wall is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits.

Types of simple, fleshy, fruits with examples include:. An aggregate fruit, or etaerio , develops from a single flower with numerous simple pistils.

The pome fruits of the family Rosaceae , including apples , pears , rosehips , and saskatoon berry are a syncarpous fleshy fruit, a simple fruit, developing from a half-inferior ovary.

Schizocarp fruits form from a syncarpous ovary and do not really dehisce , but rather split into segments with one or more seeds; they include a number of different forms from a wide range of families.

Aggregate fruits form from single flowers that have multiple carpels which are not joined together, i. Each pistil forms a fruitlet, and collectively the fruitlets are called an etaerio.

Four types of aggregate fruits include etaerios of achenes, follicles, drupelets, and berries. Ranunculaceae species, including Clematis and Ranunculus have an etaerio of achenes, Calotropis has an etaerio of follicles, and Rubus species like raspberry, have an etaerio of drupelets.

Annona have an etaerio of berries. The raspberry , whose pistils are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle.

In some bramble fruits such as blackberry the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit.

A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers called an inflorescence. Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.

In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry Morinda citrifolia can be observed on a single branch.

First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization , each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate merge into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarp.

Berries are another type of fleshy fruit; they are simple fruit created from a single ovary. Types include examples follow in the table below:.

Some or all of the edible part of accessory fruit is not generated by the ovary. Accessory fruit can be simple, aggregate, or multiple, i.

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits.

Some cultivars of citrus fruits especially grapefruit , mandarin oranges , navel oranges , satsumas , table grapes , and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness.

In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy , where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination, but most seedless citrus fruits require a stimulus from pollination to produce fruit.

Seedless bananas and grapes are triploids , and seedlessness results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy , which requires normal pollination and fertilization.

This dispersal can be achieved by animals, explosive dehiscence , water, or wind. Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals , or to stick to the feathers, hairs, or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents.

Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant. The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited i.

Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents such as squirrels , which hoard them in the soil to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.

Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally, and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent, via wind.

Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny " parachutes ", e. Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds.

Some other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine. Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits like apple , kiwifruit , mango , peach , pear , and watermelon are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves.

Fruits are also used in manufactured foods e. Many "vegetables" in culinary parlance are botanical fruits, including bell pepper , cucumber , eggplant , green bean , okra , pumpkin , squash , tomato , and zucchini.

Spices like allspice , black pepper , paprika , and vanilla are derived from berries. Fresh fruits are generally high in fiber , vitamin C , and water.

Regular consumption of fruit is generally associated with reduced risks of several diseases and functional declines associated with aging.

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, various cultures have developed many different uses for fruits they do not depend on for food.

For food safety , the CDC recommends proper fruit handling and preparation to reduce the risk of food contamination and foodborne illness. Fresh fruits and vegetables should be carefully selected; at the store, they should not be damaged or bruised; and precut pieces should be refrigerated or surrounded by ice.

All fruits and vegetables should be rinsed before eating. This recommendation also applies to produce with rinds or skins that are not eaten. It should be done just before preparing or eating to avoid premature spoilage.

Fruits and vegetables should be kept separate from raw foods like meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as from utensils that have come in contact with raw foods.

Fruits and vegetables that are not going to be cooked should be thrown away if they have touched raw meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs.

All cut, peeled, or cooked fruits and vegetables should be refrigerated within two hours. After a certain time, harmful bacteria may grow on them and increase the risk of foodborne illness.

Fruit allergies make up about 10 percent of all food related allergies. All fruits benefit from proper post harvest care, and in many fruits, the plant hormone ethylene causes ripening.

Therefore, maintaining most fruits in an efficient cold chain is optimal for post harvest storage, with the aim of extending and ensuring shelf life.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Fruit disambiguation. Berry botany and Berry. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:. Other berries not in Rosaceae or Ericaceae:. Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:.

Only Angiosperms have fruit, a structure that surrounds the seed. Gymnosperms have naked seeds, but some of them have reproductive structures that resemble fruit.

Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae , The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe.

These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species.

Most gourds and many melons are regarded as culinary vegetables. The following are generally regarded as fruits:.

The accessory fruits , seed organs which are not botanically berries at all:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

North American species e. Bignay Antidesma bunius ; Euphorbiaceae Bilberry or whortleberry Vaccinium spp. Bilimbi Averrhoa bilimbi ; Oxalidaceae Also called cucumber tree or tree sorrel Biriba Rollinia deliciosa ; Annonaceae Bitter melon , the flesh of which is bitter, and used as a culinary vegetable, but with a sweet coating around the mature seeds Black apple Planchonella australis ; Sapotaceae Black cherry Prunus serotina ; Rosaceae Blackcurrant "Ribes nigrum" Black raspberry Rubus occidentalis or Rubus leucodermis ; Rosaceae Black mulberry Morus nigra ; Moraceae Black sapote Diospyros digyna Black walnut Juglans nigra ; Juglandaceae Blackberry , of which there are many species and hybrids, such as dewberry , boysenberry , olallieberry , and tayberry genus Rubus Blood orange Blue tongue Melastoma affine ; Melastomataceae Blueberry Vaccinium, sect.

Dabai Canarium odontophyllum ; Burseraceae Damson plum Prunus domestica subsp. Eastern may hawthorn Crataegus aestivalis ; Rosaceae , better known as mayhaw.

Huito Genipa americana ; Rubiaceae ; also called jagua , genipap , jenipapo. Kumquat, meiwa, see meiwa kumquat Kumquat, nagami, see nagami kumquat Kundong Garcinia sp.

Nance Byrsonima crassifolia ; Malpighiaceae Nannyberry or sheepberry Viburnum spp. Pupunha Bactris gasipaes ; Arecaceae ; also known as peach plum or pewa Purple apple-berry Billardiera longiflora ; Pittosporaceae Purple granadilla Passiflora edulis f edulis ; Passifloraceae Purple guava Psidium rufum ; Myrtaceae Purple mombin Spondias purpurea ; Anacardiaceae.

Ugni Ugni molinae ; Myrtaceae. Wampee Clausena lansium ; Rutaceae Wani Mangifera caesia ; Mangifera Water apple Syzygium aqueum ; Myrtaceae Watermelon Citrullus lanatus Wax apple "Syzygium samarangense Wax gourd , or winter melon Benincasa hispida , eaten as a culinary vegetable when mature, but sweet when young Wax jambu Syzygium samarangense ; Myrtaceae West Indian cherry, see acerola White aspen Acronychia oblongifolia ; Rutaceae White mulberry Morus alba White sapote Casimiroa edulis ; Rutaceae Whortleberry, see bilberry Wild grape Ampelocissus acetosa Wild orange Capparis mitchellii ; Capparaceae Wild peach Terminalia carpentariae Wild plum munydjudj Buchanania obovata Wild plum Santalum lanceolatum Wild mangosteen Garcinia indica Wineberry Rubus phoenicolasius Wolfberry Lycium barbarum , Lycium spp.

Yangmei Myrica rubra ; Myricaceae , also called yumberry, yamamomo, Chinese bayberry, Japanese bayberry, red bayberry, or Chinese strawberry tree Yantok , or rattan fruit Calamus manillensis Yellow granadilla Passiflora edulis f flavicarpa ; Passifloraceae Yellow mombin Spondias mombin ; Anacardiaceae Yellow plum Ximenia americana ; Olacaceae Youngberry.

Zig zag vine Melodurum leichhardtii ; Annonaceae Ziziphus, see jujube Zwetschge Prunus domestica subsp. The named reference honeysuckle was invoked but never defined see the help page.

Blackberry , including dewberry , boysenberry , olallieberry , and tayberry Cloudberry Loganberry Raspberry species Salmonberry Thimbleberry Wineberry.

Blood orange Citron Clementine Grapefruit Kumquat Lemon Lime , including Key , Persian and kaffir lime Mandarin Naartjie Orange spicy or bitter Pomelo Sweet lemon Kabosu Oroblanco Tangerine Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the orangelo , tangelo , rangpur , ortanique , lemonade fruit , and ugli fruit.

Hairless rambutan Hog plum Horned melon Huito honeydew. Oil palm Olive Otaheite gooseberry Orange Oriental persimmon. Tahitian apple Tangerine Tamarind Tomato.

Vanilla Velvet tamarind Voavanga. Yantok Yellow granadilla Yellow mombin Youngberry. Apricot Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris Cherry , including sweet, black, sour, and wild species Chokecherry Greengage Peach and nectarine Plum of several species Hybrids of the preceding species.

Blackberry , including many species and hybrids Cloudberry Loganberry Raspberry of several species Salmonberry Thimbleberry Wineberry.

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